A scripting language is a type of programming language that undergoes interpretation at runtime rather than being transformed into machine code through compilation. A language can be executed through various means, such as interpretation or compilation into bytecode or machine code. Historically, when distinguishing between scripting and programming, scripting languages have been characterized as interpreted, while programming languages are typically compiled. It is worth noting that all scripting languages are, in fact, programming languages. The fundamental disparity lies in the fact that scripting languages do not necessitate compilation and instead rely on interpretation.
The spectrum of scripting languages encompasses a wide range, varying from petite and specialized languages tailored to specific domains, to versatile general-purpose programming languages employed for scripting purposes. Among the foundational scripting interfaces pioneered by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the Document Object Model (DOM), which facilitates dynamic access and manipulation of document content, structure, and style by programs and scripts. The DOM specifications form the cornerstone of Dynamic HTML (DHTML). Scripting plays a key role in augmenting the dynamism of web pages. For instance, it enables seamless modifications to page content without necessitating a complete reload, as well as the addition or transmission of content from a given page.