Difference between RAM And ROM

RAM (Random Access Memory) and ROM (Read-only Memory) are essential memory components found on the motherboard of a computer system. RAM serves as volatile memory, enabling real-time storage of programs and data actively utilized by the CPU during the computer's operation. On the other hand, ROM is a non-volatile memory, predominantly employed during the initial startup process of the computer system. While RAM facilitates dynamic data access and retrieval, ROM plays a crucial role in providing essential firmware and boot-up instructions to initialize the system before the operating system takes over. Together, these memory devices contribute significantly to the computer's overall performance and functionality, ensuring smooth and efficient operation during various computing tasks.

What is RAM?

RAM, an abbreviation for Random Access Memory, represents a pivotal component in modern computer systems. Its main function is to store programs and data that the CPU requires in real-time. Due to its rapid access times, RAM facilitates swift data retrieval and manipulation. It operates as volatile memory, implying that any data stored in RAM is lost once the system shuts down. This characteristic prevents it from serving as permanent storage. Instead, RAM plays a critical role in synchronizing the processor's speed with the access speed of secondary storage, ensuring seamless and efficient data processing.

There are two primary types of RAM: SRAM (Static RAM) and DRAM (Dynamic RAM). SRAM stores data using a six-transistor memory cell state, which grants it faster access times and lower power consumption. In contrast, DRAM stores data using a transistor and capacitor pair, forming a DRAM memory cell. While DRAM is less power-efficient than SRAM, it compensates with higher storage capacities and is extensively used in modern computer systems.

The capacity of RAM directly influences the overall speed and performance of the computer. Higher RAM capacity can significantly enhance the system's multitasking capabilities, allowing for smoother and more efficient execution of multiple processes simultaneously. Consequently, an optimal configuration of RAM is instrumental in maximizing the computer's processing power and overall user experience.

What is ROM?

ROM, an abbreviation for Read-Only Memory, holds a critical role in the early stages of a computer system's operation. It primarily participates in the startup process and operates as non-volatile storage, retaining data even when power is lost. Unlike RAM, ROM does not require constant power to maintain the information stored within it. This characteristic makes ROM suitable for storing essential system data and firmware, such as the BIOS (Basic Input Output System) and POST (Power On Self Test) routines.

ROM is not user programmable, and once the manufacturer places the contents in it, they are permanently sealed and cannot be altered. It stands in contrast to RAM, which allows for frequent data read, write, and erasure. Prominent among the contents of ROM is the BIOS, responsible for the initial hardware initialization and system configuration during the startup process. Additionally, POST routines are stored in ROM, performing critical checks on the system's hardware and reporting any issues encountered.

In modern computer systems, flash memory has largely replaced traditional ROM for BIOS implementations. Nevertheless, advanced versions of ROM, such as PROM (Programmable Read-Only Memory) and EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory), are available to cater to specific requirements. While PROM allows one-time programming, EPROM permits data erasure and reprogramming, granting more flexibility in certain use cases.

During the system's startup phase, the data visible on the monitor, such as the BIOS, originates from the ROM. This crucial process sets the stage for the system's operation and enables seamless interaction between hardware and software components, ensuring a smooth user experience.

Blue Screen of Death (BSOD)


The "ATTEMPTED WRITE TO READONLY MEMORY" BSOD (Blue Screen of Death) error may occur if the computer experiences an abrupt shutdown during the Windows Operating System initialization process. The Blue Screen of Death, colloquially known as BSOD, is technically referred to as a STOP message or STOP error.

To address the ATTEMPTED WRITE TO READONLY MEMORY BSOD error, it is advisable to investigate the system's overclocking settings. Disabling all overclocking or using a lower clock frequency, as recommended by the CPU, GPU, and other device manufacturers, can help resolve the issue. Additionally, employing the Last Known Good Configuration feature allows the computer to start using the most recent settings and configurations that previously worked, potentially resolving the problem.

By taking these steps, users can mitigate the occurrence of the ATTEMPTED WRITE TO READONLY MEMORY BSOD error and restore system stability during Windows OS initialization. As always, it is essential to perform these actions with caution and ensure compatibility with the hardware and software components to prevent further complications.

To check if the error is caused by a faulty drive, run an automatic driver update or manually update the drivers to the latest available versions.

To manually update a driver, follow these steps:

  1. Click Start
  2. Type in devmgmt.msc in the search box
  3. Click devmgmt from results list
  4. Right-click on the driver
  5. To update the driver, select Update Driver Software.
  6. To disable the driver, select Disable.
  7. To uninstall the driver, select Uninstall.

To run an automatic driver update, follow these steps:

  1. Click Start
  2. Go to Devices and Printers
  3. Right-click on your computer
  4. Select Device Installation Settings
  5. Select Yes, do this automatically
  6. Click Save Changes