What is Cryptography? Definition, Benefits, Future

Cryptography is the practice of securing communication and information through the use of mathematical algorithms and techniques. Its primary goal is to protect data from unauthorized access or alteration during transmission and storage. Cryptography involves the use of cryptographic algorithms to transform plaintext (readable data) into ciphertext (unreadable data) and vice versa through the use of cryptographic keys.

The core concept of cryptography

The core concept of cryptography revolves around transforming readable information (plaintext) into unreadable gibberish (ciphertext) using mathematical algorithms and keys. Only authorized individuals who possess the correct key can reverse this process (decryption), gaining access to the original message.

Think of it this way:

  1. You have a secret message you want to send to your friend.
  2. You use a special code or cipher to scramble the message before sending it.
  3. Only your friend, who knows the code, can unscramble the message and read it.

Types of Cryptography

There are two main types of cryptography: symmetric-key cryptography and public-key (asymmetric) cryptography. In symmetric-key cryptography, the same key is used for both encryption and decryption, requiring a secure method of key exchange between communicating parties. Public-key cryptography, on the other hand, uses a pair of keys – a public key for encryption and a private key for decryption. The public key can be freely distributed, while the private key must be kept secure.

Key components of cryptography

  1. Algorithms: These are the mathematical formulas used to encrypt and decrypt data. Modern cryptography relies on complex algorithms that are virtually impossible to break without the key.
  2. Keys: These are secret pieces of information that control the encryption and decryption processes. Different types of keys exist, such as symmetric keys (one key for both encryption and decryption) and asymmetric keys (different keys for each).
  3. Ciphertext: This is the scrambled form of the plaintext message. It appears as meaningless gibberish to anyone who doesn't have the key.

The future of cryptography

As our reliance on digital technologies grows, so too does the importance of robust cryptography. Researchers are constantly developing new and even more secure cryptographic algorithms and protocols to stay ahead of evolving threats. Quantum computing poses a potential challenge to some existing cryptographic methods, but new quantum-resistant algorithms are being developed to address this concern.

Benefits of cryptography

  1. Confidentiality: Ensures that only authorized individuals can access the information.
  2. Integrity: Protects the data from being modified or tampered with.
  3. Authentication: Verifies the identity of the sender and receiver.
  4. Non-repudiation: Prevents the sender from denying having sent the message.


The field of cryptography is about securing the communication, as well as the data we use, by means of mathematical concepts and algorithms. This technique is about encrypting readable data (plaintext) and decrypting unreadable data (ciphertext), the two primary objectives being confidentiality, the unmodified or unchanged value of the information, and authenticity. It is widely used in the internet communications and for protecting sensitive information.