What is an Object?
In Object-Oriented Programming, an object can be defined as a software entity that comprises variables (properties) and methods (functions). Objects are commonly used to represent and model real-world entities encountered in everyday life. The methods associated with an object serve as the primary means of accessing its data, ensuring that the data remains protected and secure from unintended modifications. The encapsulation of data and methods within an object forms a cohesive and self-contained entity. Terms such as Data Encapsulation and Data Hiding are employed to describe these key aspects of Object-Oriented Languages.
An object is an instance of a class. A class, acting as a blueprint, defines the structure and behavior of objects. All objects derived from the same class blueprint possess identical components. Member functions (methods) are shared among all objects, while each object maintains its separate copy of member data (properties). For instance, considering the example of cars, Ford and Toyota vehicles share common features and can be categorized as objects belonging to the Car class.
Objects, or instances, are indeed created from classes using the keyword "new" in most object-oriented programming languages. This allows for the creation of multiple instances of a class according to the desired need. When a new object is created, memory allocation occurs in the heap memory area. The memory allocated for the object is known as an instance, and its starting address is stored in the object, typically in the stack memory area.
By using the "new" keyword, the necessary memory is reserved to hold the object's data and references to its methods. This memory allocation enables the object to have its independent state and behavior, separate from other instances of the same class. Each object instantiated from a class maintains its own set of data values, allowing for individuality and customization.
The use of "new" and the subsequent memory allocation process are crucial for creating and managing objects in object-oriented programming. It ensures that each instance has its dedicated memory space and enables the objects to interact with each other and the program as a whole.
Object Oriented Programming representation of a Car Class
An object in Object-Oriented Programming represents a software unit that encapsulates properties and methods. Objects are instantiated from classes, which serve as blueprints, allowing for the creation of multiple objects with shared functionalities and unique data. By using classes and objects, developers can effectively model real-world entities and achieve modularity and code reuse within their software systems.