# Python Operators

An**operator**, in software programing, is a

**symbol**that usually represents an action or process, as for example "+" is an

**arithmetic operator**that represents addition. These symbols were adapted from

**mathematics**and logic.

**Programming languages**typically support a set of operators. These

**operators**are the backbone of any program and they are used for everything from very simple functions like counting to

**complex algorithms**like security encryption.

In Python, operators are

**special symbols**that designate that some sort of computation should be performed.

**Python**includes operators in the following categories:

- Arithmetic Operators
- Assignment Operators
- Comparison Operators
- Logical Boolean Operators
- Bitwise Operators
- Membership Operators
- Identity operators

## Python Arithmetic Operators

Arithmetic operators are used in**mathematical expressions**. These operators take

**numerical values**(either literals or variables) as their

**operands**and return a single numerical value.

Operator | Description | Syntax |
---|---|---|

+ | Addition | x + y |

- | Subtraction | x - y |

* | Multiplication | x * y |

/ | Division | x / y |

% | Modulus | x % y |

** | Exponentiation | x ** y |

// | Floor division | x // y |

### Python Addition (+) Operator

The addition is taking two or more numbers and adding them together, that is, it is the total sum of 2 or more numbers.

### Python Subtraction (-) Operator

Subtracts the value on the right from the one on the left.

### Python Multiplication (*) Operator

Multiplies the values on either side of the operator.

### Python Division (/) Operator

The division is a method of distributing a group of things into equal parts.

### Python Modulus (%) Operator

The modulo (or "modulus" or "mod") is the remainder after dividing one number by another.

### Python Floor division (//) Operator

Divides and returns the integer value of the quotient. It dumps the digits after the decimal.

### Python Exponentiation (**) Operator

Raises the first number to the power of the second.

## Python Assignment Operators

An**assignment operator**assigns a value to its

**left operand**based on the value of its

**right operand**. These operators do not produce values. The value of an

**assignment expression**is the value assigned.

Operator | Description | Syntax |
---|---|---|

= | x = 1 | x = 1 |

+= | x += 1 | x = x + 1 |

-= | x -= 1 | x = x - 1 |

*= | x *= 1 | x = x * 1 |

/= | x /= 1 | x = x / 1 |

%= | x %= 1 | x = x % 1 |

//= | x //= 1 | x = x // 1 |

**= | x **= 1 | x = x ** 1 |

&= | x &= 1 | x = x & 1 |

|= | x |= 1 | x = x | 1 |

^= | x ^= 1 | x = x ^ 1 |

>>= | x >>= 1 | x = x >> 1 |

<<= | x <<= 1 | x = x << 1 |

## Python Comparison Operators

Comparison operators, as their name implies, allow you to**compare two values**. These operators compare the contents in a field to either the contents in another field or a

**constant**. They may be used alone or in combination with other operators and functions in both record expressions and target

**field expressions**.

Operator | Description | Syntax |
---|---|---|

== | Equal | x == y |

!= | Not equal | x != y |

> | Greater than | x > y |

< | Less than | x < y |

>= | Greater than or equal to | x >= y |

<= | Less than or equal to | x <= y |

### Python Equal to (==) Operator

If the values of two operands are equal, then the condition becomes true.

### Python Not equal to (!=) Operator

If values of two operands are not equal, then condition becomes true.

### Python Greater than (>) Operator

If the value of left operand is greater than the value of right operand, then condition becomes true.

### Python Less than (<) Operator

If the value of left operand is less than the value of right operand, then condition becomes true.

### Python Greater than or equal to (>=) Operator

If the value of left operand is greater than or equal to the value of right operand, then condition becomes true.

### Python Less than or equal to (<=) Operator

If the value of left operand is less than or equal to the value of right operand, then condition becomes true.

## Python Logical Boolean Operators

Boolean Logic is a form of**algebra**which is centred around three simple words known as Boolean Operators:

**"Or"**,

**"And"**, and

**"Not"**. At the heart of Boolean Logic is the idea that all values are either

**true**or

**false**. When they are, they return a Boolean value

Operator | Description | Syntax |
---|---|---|

and | True if both the operands are true | x and y |

or | True if either of the operands is true | x or y |

not | True if operand is false | not x |

## Python Bitwise Operators

Bitwise operators treat their operands as a sequence of**32 bits**(zeroes and ones), rather than as decimal,

**hexadecimal**, or octal numbers. It works efficiently and are used to perform

**bitwise operations**on binary patterns. All the binary operators are in-fix except for the not operator. Typically, bitwise operations are substantially faster than

**division**, several times faster than multiplication, and sometimes significantly faster than

**addition**.

Operator | Description | Syntax |
---|---|---|

& | Bitwise AND | x & y |

| | Bitwise OR | x | y |

^ | Bitwise NOT | x ^ y |

~ | Bitwise XOR | ~x |

<< | Bitwise right shift | x>> |

>> | Bitwise left shift | x<< |

## Python Membership Operators

Membership operators are operators used to validate the**membership of a value**. This operator is used to test

**memberships in variables**such as strings, integers as well as tuples. These operator returns either

**True**or

**False**, if a value/variable found in the list, its returns True otherwise it returns False.

Operator | Description | Syntax |
---|---|---|

in | True if value is found in the sequence | x in y |

not in | True if value is not found in the sequence | x not in y |

## Python Identity operators

Identity operators are used to**compare the objects**, not if they are equal, but if they are actually the same object, with the same

**memory location**. They are usually used to determine the type of data a certain

**variable contains**.

Operator | Description | Syntax |
---|---|---|

is | True if the operands are identical | x is y |

is not | True if the operands are not identical | x is not y |

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