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Stack and Heap memory in Java

Heap Memory vs Stack Memory

The Java Heap and Stack Memory model specifies how and when different threads can see values written to shared variables by other threads, and how to synchronize access to shared variables when necessary. Stack is used for static memory allocation and Heap for dynamic memory allocation, both stored in the computer's RAM. The basic difference between stack and heap is the life cycle of the values. Stack values only exist within the scope of the function they are created in. Once it returns, they are discarded. Heap values however exist on the heap. They are created at some point in time, and destructed at another either by Garbage Collector or manually.

Java Stack Memory

Stack memory is a special region of your computer's memory that stores temporary variables created by each function. It contain method specific values that are short-lived and references to other objects in the heap that are getting referred from the method. Every time a function declares a new variable, it is "pushed" onto the stack . When a function is called, a block is reserved on the top of the stack for local variables and some bookkeeping data. Then every time a function exits, the block becomes unused and can be used the next time a function is called. The stack is always reserved in a last in first out (LIFO) order; the most recently reserved block is always the next block to be freed. This makes it really simple to keep track of the stack; freeing a block from the stack is nothing more than adjusting one pointer.

Summary

  1. The stack grows and shrinks as functions push and pop local variables
  2. There is no need to manage the memory yourself, variables are allocated and freed automatically
  3. Stack has size limits
  4. Stack variables only exist while the function that created them, is running

Java Heap Memory

Java Heap space is used by java runtime to allocate memory to Objects and JRE classes. It is the runtime data area from which the Java Virtual Machine allocates memory for all class instances and arrays. Whenever create any object, it's always created in the Heap space. Unlike the stack , there's no enforced pattern to the allocation and deallocation of blocks from the heap; you can allocate a block at any time and free it at any time. Any object created in the heap space has global access and can be referenced from anywhere of the program. Java Garbage Collector is an automatic memory management system that reclaims heap memory for objects.

Summary

  1. Variables can be accessed globally
  2. No limit on memory size
  3. Relatively slower access
  4. No guaranteed efficient use of space, memory may become fragmented over time as blocks of memory are allocated, then freed









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